Older adult woman exchanges laugh with middle school child in classroom.


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Child Care


Child care and/or adult day care

What Stride Rite learned about child and elder care:  Interview with work and family programs director K. Leibold. (1993). Personnel Journal, 72, 51.

Angersbach, H. L., & Jones-Forster, S. (1999). Intergenerational interactions:  A descriptive analysis of elder-child interactions in a campus-based child care center. Child & Youth Services, 20(1/2), 117-128.

Berenbaum, R. L. J., & Zweibach, D. F. (1996). Young adults with Down Syndrome as caregivers for the elderly with dementia:  An intergenerational project. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 26(3/4), 159-170.

Camp, C. J., Judge, K. S., Bye, C. A., Fox, K. M., Bowden, J., Bell, M., Valencic, K., & Mattern, J. M. (1997). An intergenerational program for persons with dementia using Montessori methods. The Gerontologist, 37(5), 688-692.

Chamberlain, V., Fetterman, E., & Maher, M. (1992). The economics of intergenerational community care. Journal of Home Economics, 84(2), 17-19.

Cicirelli, V. (1986). Intergenerational interactions in the adult day care setting:  An evaluation study. Unpublished manuscript, Purdue University.

Crites, M., Dillard, L., & Sumpter, G. (1990). AgeLink Project Replication Manual:  An Intergenerational School-Age Child Care Program. North Carolina: Western Carolina University.

Dellmann-Jenkins, M. (1997). A senior-centered model of intergenerational programming with young children. The Journal of Applied Gerontology, 16(4), 495-506.

Dellmann-Jenkins, M., Lambert, D., & Fruit, D. (1991). Fostering preschoolers' prosocial behaviors toward the elderly:  The effect of an intergenerational program. Educational Gerontology, 7(1), 33-40.

Epstein, A. S., & Boisvert, C. (2006). Let's do something together: Identifying the effective components of intergenerational programs. Journal of Intergenerational Relationships, 4(3), 87-109.

Epstein, A. S., & Boisvert, C. (2005). Let's Do Something Together:  Identifying the Effective Components of Intergenerational Programs, Final Project Report.  Michigan: High Scope Press.

Galinsky, E. (1989). A case for intergenerational child care. In S. Newman, & S. Brummel (Editors), Intergenerational Programs:  Imperatives, Strategies, Impacts, Trends (pp. 239-243). New York: Haworth Press, Inc.

Gardner, M. (1992). Old and young together. Working Mother, 15, 102-104.

Generations United. (2002). Reaching Across the Ages:  An Action Agenda to Strengthen Communities Through Intergenerational Shared Sites and Shared Resources. Washington, D.C.: Generations United.

Generations United. (2005). Under One Roof:  A Guide to Starting and Strengthening Intergenerational Shared Site Programs. Washington, D.C.: Generations United.

Gigliotti, C., Morris, M., Smock, S., Jarrott, S., & Graham, B. (2005). An intergenerational summer program involving persons with dementia and preschool children. Educational Gerontology, 31(6), 425-441.

Gilbert, E. (1990). Stride Rite cares for kids and elders. National Underwriter, 94(43), 9-11.

Goyer, A. (1999). Intergenerational shared-site programs. Generations, 22(4), 79-80.

Griff, M., Lambert, D., Fruit, D., & Dellmann-Jenkins, M. (1996). Linkages:  Planning an Intergenerational Program for Preschool. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley Innovative Learning Publications.

Hayes, C. L. (2003). An observational study in developing an intergenerational shared site program:  Challenges and insights. Journal of Intergenerational Relationships, 1(1), 113-131.

Hegeman, C. (1985). Child Care in Long-Term Care Settings. Albany, NY: Foundation for Long Term Care.

James, A., & Leon, K. (1992). Intergenerational programs for young children:  Organizational procedures. Day Care and Early Education, 19, 9-13.

Jarrott, S. E. & Bruno, K. (2007). Shared site intergenerational programs: A case

study. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 26(3), 239-257.

Jarrott, S. E., Gigliotti, C. M., & Smock, S. A. (2006). Where Do We Stand? Testing the Foundation of a Shared Site Intergenerational Program. Journal of Intergenerational Relationships, 4(2), 73-92.

Jarrott, S. E. (2001).  Intergenerational activities involving persons with dementia:  An observational assessment. Poster presented at the Gerontological Society of America, Chicago, IL.

Johnson, S. (1985). Beginning bridges:  A history of the Elvirita Lewis Foundation Intergenerational Child Care program. K. A. Strunz, & S. ReVille (Editors), Growing Together:  An Intergenerational Sourcebook (pp. 43-44). Washington, D.C.: American Association of Retired Persons and The Elvirita Lewis Foundation.

Kaplan, M., Duerr, L., Whitesell, W., Merchant, L., Davis, D., & Larkin, E. (2003). Developing an Intergenerational Program in Your Early Childhood Care and Education Center. Penn State University: Penn State University.

Kaplan, M., & Larkin, E. (2004). Launching intergenerational programs in early childhood settings:  A comparison of explicit intervention with an emergent approach. Early Childhood Education Journal, 31(3), 157-163.

Keegan, P. (1991). Doing the Rite thing. Boston, 83(7), 22.

Kocarnik Ponzetti, R., & Ponzetti, J. J. Jr. (1999). Corporate opportunities for intergenerational linkages:  A human resources perspective. Child & Youth Services, 20(1/2), 149-159.

Kocarnik, R. A., & Ponzetti, J. J. (1986). The influence of intergenerational contact on child care participants' attitudes toward elderly. Child Care Quarterly, 15(4), 244-250.

Kopac, C. (1987). Bring together the young and old with intergenerational day care. Pediatric Nursing, 13(4), 227-229.

Kuehne, V. S. (1988). 'Younger friends/older friends':  A study of intergenerational interactions. Journal of Classroom Interaction, 24(1), 14-21.

Lambert, D. J., Dellmann-Jenkins, M., & Fruit, D. (1990). Planning for contact between the generations:  an effective approach. The Gerontologist, 30(4), 553-556.

Larkin, E., & Newman, S. (2001). Benefits of intergenerational staffing in preschools. Educational Gerontology, 27(5), 373-385.

Leibold, K. (1989). Employer-sponsored on-site intergenerational day care. Generations, 13(3), 33-34.

Ludtke, M. (1990). Getting young and old together. Time, April 16, 84.

Lyons, C. (1986). Interagency alliances link young and old. Children Today, 15(5), 21-25.

Mahmood, S. (2006). The employers' view on older adults as staff in early childhood

education services. Journal of Intergenerational Relationships, 4(3), 29-48.

Marcus, J. (1995 November). Elders help to provide better way. The Times Educational Supplement, p. 19.

Matthes, K. (1993). A coming of age for intergenerational care. HR Focus, 70(6), 10-11.

McDuffie, W., & Whiteman, J. (1989). Intergenerational Activities Program Handbook (3rd ed.). Binghamton, New York: Broome County Child Development Council, Inc.

Middlecamp, M., & Gross, D. (2002). Intergenerational daycare and preschoolers' attitudes about aging. Educational Gerontology, 28, 271-288.

Nash, B. E. (1968). Foster grandparents in child-care settings. Public Welfare,  272-280.

Nester, S. L., & Jarrott, S. E. (2001). Children and elders with dementia in modified Montessori activities:  An evaluation of affect and activity. Gerontological Society of America .

Orsulic-Jeras, S., Camp, C. J., Judge, K. S., & Lee, M. M. (unknown). Using intergenerational Montessori programming to increase levels of engagement in adult day care clients with dementia. Poster presented at the Gerontological Society of America.

Salari, S. M. (2002). Intergenerational partnerships in adult day centers:  Importance of age-appropriate environments and behaviors. The Gerontologist, 42(3), 321-333.

Saltz, R. (1971). Aging persons as child care workers in a foster grandparent program:  Psychosocial effects and work performance. Aging and Human Development, 2, 314-340.

Scott, J. P., Reifman, A., Mulsow, M., & Feng, D. (2003). Program evaluation of "Young at Heart":  Examining elderly volunteers' generativity. Journal of Intergenerational Relationships, 1(3), 25-33.

Seller, J. M. (1985). New home for our family:  Building an intergenerational day care center. K. A. Strunz, & S. ReVille (Editors), Growing Together:  An Intergenerational Sourcebook (pp. 47-48). Washington, D.C.: American Association of Retired Persons and The Elvirita Lewis Foundation.

Short-DeGraff, M. A., & Diamond, K. (1996). Intergenerational program effects on social responses of elderly adult day care members. Educational Gerontology, 22, 467-482.

Sparling, J., & Rogers, J. C. (1985). Intergenerational intervention:  A reciprocal service delivery system for preschoolers, adolescents, and older persons. Educational Gerontology, 11, 41-55.
Stremmel, A. J., Travis, S. S., & Kelley-Harrison, P. (1997). Mutually beneficial activities for young children and older adults in dependent care. Young Children, 52(7), 29-31.

Stremmel, A. J., Travis, S. S., Kelly-Harrison, P., & Hensley, A. D. (1994). The perceived benefits and problems associated with intergenerational exchanges in day care settings. The Gerontologist, 34(4), 513-519.

Thang, L. L. (2001). Generations In Touch:  Linking the Old and Young in a Tokyo Neighborhood. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Thornburg, L. (1993). Day care for kids and elders is a natural:  How intergenerational care centers work for Lancaster Laboratories and Stride Rite. HR Magazine, 38, 48-50.

Travis, S., Stremmel, A., & Duprey. (1993). Child and adult day care professions converging in the 90s? Educational Gerontology, 19, 285-295.

Travis, S. S., & Stremmel, A. J. (1999). Predictors of the likelihood to provide intergenerational activities in child and adult day care centers. Child & Youth Services, 20(1/2), 101-114.

Travis, S. S., Stremmel, A. J., & Kelly-Harrison, P. (1997). Attitudes toward intergenerational exchanges among administrators in child and adult day care centers. Educational Gerontology, 23, 775-787.

Travis, S. S., Stremmel, A. J., & Kelly-Harrison, P. (1996). Intergenerational programming for young children and dependent elders:  Current status and future directions. Activities, Adaptation, and Aging, 20(2), 33-50.

Ward, C. R., Walson, B., Nicholson, B., & Newman, S. (1996). Replication Manual: Generations, A Co-Located Intergenerational Day Care Program. Pittsburgh, PA: Generations Together, University of Pittsburgh.

Watts, P. (1990). A giant step for day care at Stride Rite:  Combining eldercare with childcare. Executive Female, 13, 9+.

Weintraub, A. P. C. & Killian, T. S. (2007). Intergenerational programming: Older

persons' perceptions of its impact. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 26, (4), 370-384.

Weisburd, S. (1992). Grandpals, link of ages. Health, 6, 82+.

Winkelstein, E., & Olson, G. (1985). A community/university day care training model:  A bilingual intergenerational approach to adult learning. K. A. Strunz, & S. ReVille (Editors), Growing Together:  An Intergenerational Sourcebook (pp. 41-42). Washington, D.C.: American Association of Retired Persons and The Elvirita Lewis Foundation.

Witmer, J. (1997). Caregiver's Corner:  Regularly bring young and old together. Young Children, 52(6), 74.

Child development

Benard, B. (2001). Promoting healthy children and healthy communities through community youth development. Pregnancy Prevention for Youth:  An Interdisciplinary Newsletter , June 2001.

Blyth, D. A., & Leffert, N. (1995). Communities as contexts for adolescent development:  An empirical analysis. Journal of Adolescent Research, 10(1), 64-87.

Bronfenbrenner, U. (1977). Nobody home:  The erosion of the American family. Psychology Today, 10, 40-47.

Chellam, G. (1981). Intergenerational affinities:  Symmetrical life experiences of the young adults and the aging in Canadian society.  International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 12(2), 79-92.

Crites, M. S. (1989). Child development and intergenerational programming. In S. Newman, & S. Brummel (Editors), Intergenerational Programs:  Imperatives, Strategies, Impacts, Trends (pp. 33-45). New York: Haworth Press, Inc.

Erikson, E. (1963). Childhood and Society. New York: Norton.

Furstenberg, F. F., & Hughes, M. E. (1997). The influence of neighborhoods on children's development:  A theoretical perspective and research agenda. J. Brooks-Gunn, G. J. Duncan, & J. L. Abner (Editors), Neighborhood Poverty:   Policy Implications in Studying Neighborhoods (Vol. 2pp. 23-47). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Graves, S., & Larkin, E. (2006). Lessons from Erikson:  A look at autonomy across the lifespan. Journal of Intergenerational Relationships, 4(2), 61-71.

Heydon, R. M. (2007). Making meaning together: Multi-modal literacy learning

opportunities in an inter-generational art programme." Journal of Curriculum

Studies, 39(1), 35-62.

Large, A., Bowler, L., et al. (2007). Creating web portals with children as designers:

Bonded design and the Zone of Proximal Development. McGill Journal of Education, 42(1), 61-82.

Marks, R., Newman, S., & Onawola, R. (1985). Latency-aged children's views of aging. Educational Gerontology, 2(2-3), 89-90.

Newman, S. (1982). The impact of intergenerational programs on children's growth and on older person's life satisfaction. Unpublished Paper Presented at a Symposium:  'Innovations Within Educational Gerontology'.

Newman, S. (1985). The impact of intergenerational programs on children's growth and on older persons' life satisfaction. K. A. Strunz, & S. ReVille (Editors), Growing Together:  An Intergenerational Sourcebook (pp. 22-24). Washington, D.C.: American Association of Retired Persons and The Elvirita Lewis Foundation.

Proller, N. L. (1989). The effects of an adoptive grandparent program on youth and elderly participants. S. Newman, & S. Brummel (Editors), Intergenerational Programs:  Imperatives, Strategies, Impacts, Trends (pp. 195-203). New York: Haworth Press.

ReVille, S. (1989). Young adulthood to old age:  Looking at intergenerational possibilities from a human development perspective. In S. Newman, & S. Brummel (Editors), Intergenerational Programs:  Imperatives, Strategies, Impacts, Trends (pp. 45-53). New York: Haworth Press, Inc.

Roehlkepartain, J. L., & Leffert, N. (2000). What Young Children Need to Succeed:  Working Together to Build Assets from Birth to Age 11. Minneapolis: Free Spirit Publishing, Inc.
Abstract: Hundreds of practical, concrete ways to build 40 assets in 4 different age groups. 

Rosebrook, V. (2007). Intergenerational Personal/Social Skills Development Study.

Childhood Education, 83(3), p162-P.

Rosich, R., & Meck, N. (1987). Intergenerational relations and life-span developmental psychology:  A review of the Ninth West Virginia University Life-Span Developmental Psychology Conference. Human Development, 30(1), 60-65.

Saltz, R. (1970). Effects of a Foster Grandparent Program on the Intellectual and Social Development of Young Children in Institutions. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI.

Sampson, R. J. (2001). How do communities undergird or undermine human development? A. Booth, & A. C. Crouter (Editors), Does it Take a Village?  Community Effects on Children, Adolescents, and Families (pp. 3-30). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Child care and/or long term care

Intergenerational approaches to problem-solving in senior living industries. (unknown).  La Quinta, CA: Elvirita Lewis Foundation.

Person-To-Person:  A Community Service Guide for Youth Groups Visiting Senior Residences. (unknown).  Kensington, MD: Interages.

Baecher-Brown, D. (1997). Why a geriatric center? Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 28(1/2), 163-170.

Beacham, C., & Funk, K. R. (2000). Bringing generations together. Eden Alternative Journal, 8(4).

Bell, K., & Powell, L. (1983). Intergenerational Involvement in Residential Settings:  The Integration of Child Care Centers in Nursing Homes. Bethesda, MD: American College of Health Care Administrators.

Bressler, J. (2001). The impact of intergenerational programs on long-term care residents. at  Gerontological Society of America .

Chamberlain, V. M., Fetterman, E., & Maher, M. (1994). Innovation in elder and child care:  An intergenerational experience. Educational Gerontology, 19, 193-204.

Clark, P. (1991). Intergenerational Arts in the Nursing Home:  A Handbook. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Dunkle, R., & Mikelthun, B. G. (1983). Intergenerational programming:  An adopt-a-grandparent program in a retirement community. in P. Foster (Editor), Activities and the Well Elderly (pp. 93-106). New York: Haworth Press, Inc.

Eggers, S. J., & Hensley, B. H. (2005). Empowering spirituality and generativity through intergenerational connections. Journal of Religion, Spirituality, and Aging, 17(1/2), 87-108.

Galinsky, E. (1989). A case for intergenerational child care. In S. Newman, & S. Brummel (Editors), Intergenerational Programs:  Imperatives, Strategies, Impacts, Trends (pp. 239-243). New York: Haworth Press, Inc.

Generations United. (2002). Reaching Across the Ages:  An Action Agenda to Strengthen Communities Through Intergenerational Shared Sites and Shared Resources. Washington, D.C.: Generations United.

Generations United. (2005). Under One Roof:  A Guide to Starting and Strengthening Intergenerational Shared Site Programs. Washington, D.C.: Generations United.

Goyer, A. (1999). Intergenerational shared-site programs. Generations, 22(4), 79-80.

Griff, M., Lambert, D., Dellman-Jenkins, M., & Fruit, D. (1996). Intergenerational activity analysis with three groups of older adults:  Frail, community-living, and Alzheimer's. Educational Gerontology, 22, 601-612.

Hegeman, C. (1985). Child Care in Long-Term Care Settings. Albany, NY: Foundation for Long Term Care.

Hutchinson, S. A., & Bondy, E. (1990). The Pals Program:  Intergenerational remotivation. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 16(2), 18-26.

James, A., & Leon, K. (1992). Intergenerational programs for young children:  Organizational procedures. Day Care and Early Education, 19, 9-13.

Kocarnik, R. A., & Ponzetti, J. J. Jr. (1991). The advantages and challenges of intergenerational programs in long term care facilities. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 16(1/2), 97-107.

Lambert, D. J., Dellmann-Jenkins, M., & Fruit, D. (1990). Planning for contact between the generations:  an effective approach. The Gerontologist, 30(4), 553-556.

Lowrie, K. (2004 April). Young, old hands work together:  Girl Scouts, seniors build butterfly garden. Ann Arbor News, p. 5.

Lyons, C., & Newman, S. (1983). How to Develop an Intergenerational Service-Learning Program at a Nursing Home: A Manual. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Generations Together .

Machir, J., & Skinner, J. (2004). Pencil Pals:  Bridging the community and generations. Journal of Intergenerational Relationships, 2(2), 101-103.

Marcia, S., Alicia, R., Parpura-Gill, A., & Cohen-Mansfield, J. (2004). Direct observations of children at risk for academic failure:  Benefits of an intergenerational visiting program. Educational Gerontology, 30(8), 663-675.

McDuffie, W. G. (1985). Linking young children with elders:  The Broome County, New York, intergenerational program. K. A. Strunz, & S. ReVille (Editors), Growing Together:  An Intergenerational Sourcebook (pp. 44-46). Washington, D.C.: American Association of Retired Persons and The Elvirita Lewis Foundation.

Mersereau, Y., & Glover, M. (1992). A Guide to Community:  An Intergenerational Friendship Program Between Young People and Nursing Home Residents.  Bi-Folkal Productions.

Newman, S., Lyons, C., & Onawola, R. (1985). The development of an intergenerational service-learning program at a nursing home. The Gerontologist, 25(2), 130-133.

Newman, S., Lyons, C., & Onawola, R. (1983). The effects of an intergenerational service-learning program at a nursing home. Unpublished Paper,  1-9.

Perschbacher, R. (1985). Making connections between the school system and the nursing home. Activities, Adaptation, and Aging, 6(3), 37-42.

Roth, D. E. (2004). Young adult college students reflect on their interaction with frail elders in culture change:  In light of world religions. Journal of Intergenerational Relationships, 2(1), 29-45.

Saltz, R. (1970). Effects of a Foster Grandparent Program on the Intellectual and Social Development of Young Children in Institutions. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI.

Schwalbach, E., & Kiernan, S. (2002). Effects of an intergenerational friendly visit program on the attitudes of fourth graders toward elders. Educational Gerontology, 28, 175-187.

Seefeldt, C. (1987). The effects of preschoolers' visits to a nursing home. The Gerontologist, 27(2), 228-232.

Seo, M.-Y. (2006). Therapeutic and Developmental Design:  The Relationship between Spatial Enclosure and Impaired Elder-Child Social Interaction. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University.

Sugarman, J. G., & Brown, P. (1985). Child care centers in long-term care facilities. K. A. Strunz, & S. ReVille (Editors), Growing Together:  An Intergenerational Sourcebook (pp. 48-49). Washington, D.C.: American Association of Retired Persons and The Elvirita Lewis Foundation.

Thang, L. L. (2001). Generations In Touch:  Linking the Old and Young in a Tokyo Neighborhood. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Thomas, W. H. (1996). Life Worth Living:  The Eden Alternative in Action. Acton, Massachusetts: VanderWyk & Burnham.

Vujovich, J. E. (1987). Child Care in Nursing Homes:  Creating an Intergenerational Program. Steamboat Springs, CO: Age Connection.

Waggoner, G. (1995). Adopt an elder:  Linking youth and the elderly. Activities, Adaptation, and Aging, 20(1), 41-52.

Wallach, H. F., Kelly, F., & Abrahams, J. P. (1979). Psychosocial rehabilitation for chronic geriatric patients:  An intergenerational approach. The Gerontologist, 19(5), 464-470.

Weinsberg, E. J. (1974). High School Volunteers' Attitudes About the Elderly:  The Short-Term Effects of Contact with Aged Residents of Nursing Homes. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, New York.

Weisburd, S. (1992). Grandpals, link of ages. Health, 6, 82+.

Witmer, J. (1997). Caregiver's Corner:  Regularly bring young and old together. Young Children, 52(6), 74.

Ziemba, J., Roop, K., & Wittenberg, S. (1988). A magic mix:  After-school programs in a nursing home. Children Today, 17(5), 9-13.

Older adults as child care providers

Collins, G. (1987 December). Wanted:  Child care workers, age 55 and up. New York Times, p. 18.

Fink, D. (1985). Intergenerational Adventure:  A Training Curriculum for Older Adult Caregivers Working with School Age Children During the Hours After School. Wellesley, MA: Wellesley College, Center for Research on Women.

Helfgott, K. P. (1992). Older Adults Caring for Children:  Intergenerational Child Care. Washington, D.C.: Generations United.

Kaplan, M., & Larkin, E. (2004). Launching intergenerational programs in early childhood settings:  A comparison of explicit intervention with an emergent approach. Early Childhood Education Journal, 31(3), 157-163.

Kramer, G., & Bumgarner, S. (1985). Working together:  Training low-income elderly for work in child care. K. A. Strunz, & S. ReVille (Editors), Growing Together:  An Intergenerational Sourcebook (pp. 39-40). Washington, D.C.: American Association of Retired Persons and The Elvirita Lewis Foundation.

Lambert, D. J., Dellmann-Jenkins, M., & Fruit, D. (1990). Planning for contact between the generations:  an effective approach. The Gerontologist, 30(4), 553-556.

Larkin, E. (1999). The intergenerational response to childcare and after-school care. Generations,  33-36.

Larkin, E., & Newman, S. (2001). Benefits of intergenerational staffing in preschools. Educational Gerontology, 27(5), 373-385.

Lowenthal, B., & Egan, R. (1991). Senior citizen volunteers in a university day-care center. Educational Gerontology, 17, 363-378.

Share it with the Children. (1989). T. V. D. I. Lucy Jones (Producer): Generations Together.

To Help Somebody’s Child: Older Adults Making a Difference in Child Care. (1999). T. V. D. I. Lucy Jones (Producer): Generations Together.

Waking Up Vanessa. (1991). T. V. D. I. Lucy Jones (Producer): Generations Together.

Ludtke, M. (1990). Getting young and old together. Time, April 16, 84.

Lyons, C. (1986). Interagency alliances link young and old. Children Today, 15(5), 21-25.

Mahmood, S. (2006). The employers' view on older adults as staff in early childhood education services . Journal of Intergenerational Relationships, 4(3), 29-48.

Newman, S., Larkin, E., & Smith, T. (1999). To Help Somebody’s Child. Complementary Behaviors of Older and Younger Child Care Providers. Pittsburgh, PA: Generations Together, University of Pittsburgh.

Newman, S. (1989). Training older adults for new careers. Unpublished Paper Presented at the American Society on Aging Annual Conference, Washington D.C..

Newman, S. (1989). Who will care for our children? Perspectives on Aging, 18(6), 22-23.

Newman, S., Engel, R., Ward, C., & Karip, E. (1994). Older Workers in Child Care:  A Longitudinal Study of Their Experiences and Impact.  (Final report for AARP-Andrus). Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh, Generations Together.

Newman, S., & Riess, J. (1992). Older workers in intergenerational child care. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 19(2), 45-61.

Newman, S., Vander Ven, K., & Ward, C. (1992). Practitioner's Manual for the Productive Employment of Older Adults in Child Care. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh, Generations Together.

Saltz, R. (1971). Aging persons as child care workers in a foster grandparent program:  Psychosocial effects and work performance. Aging and Human Development, 2, 314-340.

Smith, T. B. (1994). Home-Based Family Literacy Mentoring - A Guide for Head Start Teachers. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Generations Together .

Smith, T. B., Mack, C., & Tittnich, E. (1993). Generations Together: A Job Training Curriculum for Older adults in Child Care. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.

Smith, T., & Newman, S. (1993). Older adults in early childhood programs:  Why and how. Young Children, 48(3), 32-35.

Smith, T. B., & Newman, S. (1992). Older adults in Head Start. National Head Start Association Journal, 10(4), 33-35.

Tramel-Seck, E. (1983). National Intergenerational Research and Dissemination Project:  Final Report on Opportunities for Older Workers in Children's Preschool Network. Los Angeles, CA: Institute for Policy and Program Development, University of Southern California.

Ward, C., Engel, R., & Newman, S. (1997-1998). A Training Model for Older Adults for Work in Child Care and Employment Retention. Journal of Child and Youth Care Work, 112-113, 68-79.

Ward, C. R. (1995). Developing Guidelines for the Productive Employment of Older Adults in Child Care. The Southwest Journal on Aging, 10(1-2), 7-12.

Ward, C. R. (1993). Factors in successful community college older worker child care training programs. Unpublished Paper Presented at the American Society on Aging, Chicago IL.

Ward, C. R., & Smith, T. (1992). Community college training for older adults for child care employment. Community College CATALYST, 22(3), 3-6.

Williams, A. (2004). Buzz Lightyear in the nursery:  Intergenerational literacy learning in a multi-media age. E. Gregory, S. Long, & D. Volk (Editors), Many Pathways to Literacy : Young Children Learning with Siblings, Grandparents, Peers, and Communities (p. unknown). New York: Routledge.

Intergenerational foster care

Eheart, B. K., Hopping, D., Power, M. B., & Racine, D. (2005). Intergenerational Community as Intervention. Elders as Resources:  Intergenerational Strategies Series . Baltimore, MD: Annie E. Casey Foundation.

Eheart, B. K., Power, M. B., & Hopping, D. E. (2003). Intergenerational programming for foster-adoptive families:  Creating community at Hope Meadows. Journal of Intergenerational Relationships, 1(1), 17-28.

Hopping, D., & Eheart, B. K. (1999). Housing and support for foster families:  Hope for the children. Generations, 22(4), 74-75.

Nash, B. E. (1968). Foster grandparents in child-care settings. Public Welfare,  272-280.

Smith, W. (2001). Hope Meadows:  Real-Life Stories of Healing and Caring from an Inspiring Community. New York: Berkley Books.

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